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Anti-Freeze
Any of several substances (commonly liquids and typically ethylene glycol) mixed with water and added to a car's cooling system to prevent freezing of the coolant in winter and inhibit formation of rust and other deposits that would tend to clog the radiator and coolant passages and reduce cooling efficiency.

A-Pillar (A-Post)
The forward or windshield pillars on a car that supports the windshield and the front portion of the roof.

A-Post (A-Pillar)
The forward or windshield pillars on a car that supports the windshield and the front portion of the roof.
 

Armature
A wire-wrapped iron or steel core forming a movable coil within the starting motor. When it revolves in the magnetic field between the poles, an electric current is induced.

Axle
A shaft on which a wheel revolves or which revolves with a wheel. Also, a solid beam that connects the two wheels at one end of the car. In the latter sense an axle is called "live" if it transmits power as in a front-engine rear-drive car. It's called a "beam" or "dead" axle if the axle does nothing but support the wheels as at the rear of a front-wheel-drive car.


Adjustable Shocks
Shock absorbers (dampers) whose jounce and rebound characteristics can be stiffened or softened to compensate for wear or to fine-tune a suspension for a particular application such as rough roads, heavy loads or racing.

Air Cooled
An engine cooled by passage of air around the cylinders, not by passage of a liquid through internal water jackets.

Air-Fuel Ratio
The mass of air supplied to the engine divided by the mass of fuel supplied in the same period of time. The Stoichipmetric, or chemically correct, air-fuel ratio (A/F ratio) is the exact ratio necessary to burn all the carbon and hydrogen in the fuel to carbon dioxide and water with no oxygen remaining. The fuel-air ratio is the reciprocal of the air-fuel ratio.

Air Injection
A system that injects air into the exhaust ports of a thermal reactor, for additional conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and combustion of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases.

Air Pump
The device that supplies the fresh air needed by the air-injection system.

Automatic Transmission
A mechanism in the drive train with gear sets to vary the power and torque delivered to the driven wheels as a function of engine load and speed, usually incorporating a fluid coupling or torque converter to allow changing gears and reversing direction without using a foot operated clutch.

Acquisition Fee
An acquisition fee is a charge for processing a lease and is probably not negotiable. On a shorter-term lease, the acquisition fee can have a large impact on the cost of the lease.

Air Filter
A device for removing impurities from the air which enters the combustion chamber

Air Scoop
A forward facing aerodynamic device or opening used to duct cool outside air to some part of the vehicle such as the carburetor intake, the brakes, the radiator, or an oil cooler.


ABS (Anti-Lock Brake System)

A device which senses that one or more of the wheels are locking up during braking. It is controlled by both mechanical and electronic components. When you apply the brakes, the ABS will regulate the flow of brake fluid being delivered to the brake calipers. It must be remembered that a wheel cannot be steered unless it is rolling; so if the wheel is locked up, there is no steering control. By the use of electronic computers, the brakes rapidly alternate (at a rate of 30 times per second) from full pressure to full release. This process will also alternate from the left-front wheel and the right-rear wheel and switch to the right-front wheel and left-rear wheel. In this way both maximum braking and maximum steering control is allowed during braking.

Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS)
A device which senses that one or more of the wheels are locking up during braking. It is controlled by both mechanical and electronic components. When you apply the brakes, the ABS will regulate the flow of brake fluid being delivered to the brake calipers. It must be remembered that a wheel cannot be steered unless it is rolling; so if the wheel is locked up, there is no steering control. By the use of electronic computers, the brakes rapidly alternate (at a rate of 30 times per second) from full pressure to full release. This process will also alternate from the left-front wheel and the right-rear wheel and switch to the right-front wheel and left-rear wheel. In this way both maximum braking and maximum steering control is allowed during braking.

Alternator
A device which produces alternating current (AC) by converting the engine's turning (mechanical) energy into alternating electrical current at all engine speeds. The AC must be rectified (converted from AC to DC) before reaching the vehicle's electrical system. The alternator is driven by a belt at the front of the engine.

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